Tuesday, January 21, 2020

A Different Life :: essays research papers

A Different Life Silence came in seventh grade. It was in seventh grade that I began the first of six years at a private school. In those six years I realized that it was not only I who had lost their voice; I was one among many who were denied the opportunity to speak. I distinctly remember the first time they betrayed me and informed me that my voice was invalid. A close friend of mine from elementary school wanted to attend and I was telling others about him- telling them how neat he was. The three people whom I had felt I could trust- the headmaster, academic dean, and dean of students- cornered me and attacked me for things that I had supposedly said. They did not believe me when I pleaded my case, saying, "He is my friend. Why would I say such horrible things?" They three looked at each other, stuck their noses in the air and simply explained that it sounded like the kind of thing I would do. They did not know me. They had accepted a rumor as truth. They attacked me and disregarded my testimony. Unfortunately, this moment was merely the beginning of the silencing. It continued until the day I graduated. They condemned me for being curious and outspoken and lively. They shut me down for every brilliant idea I proposed, telling me that it was against the rules. I lived, quite literally, in this silence. I could not win by being myself, so I engulfed myself in obtaining their approval through silence and obedience. And I remember exactly what he said to me when I left. On June 4, 1999 my headmaster said to me, "Saint James has really changed you. You've really calmed down a lot. You've become a real lady." I finally gained his approval, but at what cost? Even then, when I was leaving, I could not find the voice to scream at him and tell him how deeply he had hurt me. I did not have the voice to tell him about all the pain he had brought me. I did not have the voice to tell him that I would have forfeited all of the "ladiness" I had gained over six years if I could have my voice back. Saint James taught me to bottle my emotions, because whenever I was open with them I would get in trouble.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Attitudes Towards Technology: Han China and Roman Empire Essay

Han and Roman attitudes towards technology in the late BCE and early CE pointed towards two main categories, positive and negative. The Majority of the documents had positive attitudes towards technology because of its obvious benefits to the author’s cities. Documents 1 and 8 show government officials in charge of water technology. Both show obvious support for the technology they are associated with, preventing floods or creating aqueducts for their cities. Also, their jobs require them to use technology so they must have an appreciation for it. Documents 3 and 4 describe times when the technology used to help citizens direct their water to help productivity. It is shown that both government and philosophers see a benefit of technology in society, clearly improving productivity for their whole country. Lastly, Document 6 shows Plutarch, a high government official, writing of the creation of roads that helped the mobility of horses, the organization of cities, and beauty of the land. On the other hand, few documents show points of view seeing technology in a negative light. Document 2 shows a govt. official describing the bad quality of technology because of lack of workers and quality labor. He also states that the lack of quality technology causes an increase in the iron and salt prices, resulting in lack of seasoning for the peasants’ food and lack of strong tools for farming. Documents 5 and 7 show two Roman upper classman opposed to technology because they believe inventors and craftsment lack wisdom and enlightenment. Their were two main point of view that could have affected the bias of the documents’ position on the matter. The first is shown in documents 1 and 8 where the sources are men with an occupation in technological work. This means they must have started with an appreciation for it. Also, the more they advertised the ideas of their technologies, the better the business was for them, making them more wealthy and important, thus more powerful. The second point of view comes from positions of very high power and little knowledge of the use of technology. Shown in documents 5 and 7 are two sources that have very high positions in their society where they lack experience and knowledge of the uses of technology. Had they known more and had first hand experience with tools and different crafts, they might have a  better appreciation for such â€Å"vulgar† jobs. Looking over the documents, it is made obvious that all the document come from high class citizens fiving us no perspective from the less wealthy. Had we gotten a document from a lower class citizen, we would then be able to draw info on how technology affected the larger part of societies. Also, all the sources come from male citizens fiving us no knowledge of the effect it technology had on the women. Perhaps their household lives were affected greatly by the creation of tools, an area of daily lives men of the upper class would have no knowledge of. The majority of attitude towards technology during the Han dynasty and Roman Empire reasonably was positive, but the portion of negative responses lay mostly in areas of lack of knowledge on the subject.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Ph.D. in Psychology or Psy.D.

If you plan to study psychology at the graduate level, youve got options. Both Ph.D. and Psy.D. degrees are doctoral degrees in psychology. However, they differ in history, emphasis, and logistics. Psy.D. Degree Has an Emphasis on Practice The Ph.D. in psychology has been around for well over 100 years, but the Psy.D., or doctorate of psychology degree is much newer. The Psy.D. degree became popular in the early 1970s, created as a professional degree, much like that for a lawyer. It trains graduates for applied work—in this case, therapy. The Ph.D. is a research degree, yet many students seek a doctoral degree in psychology to practice and do not plan to conduct research. Therefore, the Psy.D. is intended to prepare graduates for careers as practicing psychologists. The Psy.D. offers a great deal of training in therapeutic techniques and many supervised experiences, but there is less of an emphasis on research than in Ph.D. programs. As a graduate from a Psy.D. program, you can expect to excel in practice-related knowledge and experience. You will also become familiar with research methodology, read research articles, learn about research findings, and be able to apply research findings to your work. Essentially, Psy.D. graduates are trained to be consumers of research-based knowledge. Ph.D. Degree Has an Emphasis on Research Ph.D. programs are designed to train psychologists to not only understand and apply research  but also to conduct it. Ph.D. psychology graduates are trained to be creators of research-based knowledge. Ph.D. programs range in the emphasis they place on research and practice. Some programs emphasize creating scientists. In these programs, students spend most of their time on research and much less time on practice-related activities. In fact, these programs discourage students from engaging in therapeutic practice. While Psy.D. programs emphasize creating practitioners, many Ph.D. programs combine both the scientist and practitioner models. They create scientist-practitioners—graduates who are competent researchers as well as practitioners. If youre considering a degree in psychology, keep in mind these distinctions so that you apply to programs that are appropriate to your interests and goals. Ultimately, if you think you might want to engage in research or teach at a college at some point in your career, you should consider a Ph.D. over a Psy.D. because the research training provides more flexibility in career options. Funding of the Respective Programs Generally speaking, Ph.D. programs offer more funding than do Psy.D. programs. Most students who obtain a Psy.D. pay for their degrees with loans. Ph.D. programs, on the other hand, often have faculty members with research grants who can afford to hire students to work with them—and they often offer some combination of tuition and a stipend. Not all Ph.D. students are awarded funding, but you are more likely to get funding in a Ph.D. program. Time to Degree Generally speaking, Psy.D. students finish their graduate programs in less time than do Ph.D. students. A Psy.D. requires a specific number of years of coursework and practice, as well as a dissertation that usually requires students to apply research to a given problem or analyze the research literature. A Ph.D. also requires a specific number of years of coursework and practice, but the dissertation is a more cumbersome project because it requires that students devise, conduct, write, and defend a research study that will make an original contribution to academic literature. That could take an extra year or two—or more—than a Psy.D. Bottom Line Both the Psy.D. ​and Ph.D. are doctoral degrees in psychology. Which one you choose depends on your career goals—whether you prefer a career solely in practice  or one in research or a combination of research and practice.

Saturday, December 28, 2019

History Of Bullet Proof Vests

Humans throughout recorded history have used various types of materials as body armor to protect themselves from injury in combat and other dangerous situations. The first protective clothing and shields were made from animal skins. As civilizations became more advanced, wooden shields and then metal shields came into use. Eventually, metal was also used as body armor, what we now refer to as the suit of armor associated with the knights of the Middle Ages. However, with the invention of firearms around 1500, metal body armor became ineffective. Then only real protection available against firearms were stone walls or natural barriers such as rocks, trees, and ditches. Soft Body Armor One of the first recorded instances of the use of soft body armor was by the medieval Japanese, who used armor manufactured from silk. It was not until the late 19th century that the first use of soft body armor in the United States was recorded. At that time, the military explored the possibility of using soft body armor manufactured from silk. The project even attracted congressional attention after the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901. While the garments were shown to be effective against low-velocity bullets, those traveling at 400 feet per second or less, they did not offer protection against the new generation of handgun ammunition being introduced at that time. Ammunition that traveled at velocities of more than 600 feet per second. This, along with the prohibitive cost of silk made the concept unacceptable. Silk armor of this type was said to have been worn by Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria when he was killed by a shot to the head, thereby precipitat ing World War I. Early Bullet Proof Vests Patents The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office lists records dating back to 1919 for various designs of bulletproof vests and body armor type garments. One of the first documented instances where such a garment was demonstrated for use by law enforcement officers was detailed in the April 2, 1931, edition of the Washington, D.C., Evening Star, where a bulletproof vest was demonstrated to members of the Metropolitan Police Department. Flak Jacket The next generation of the anti-ballistic bullet proof vest was the World War II flak jacket made from ballistic nylon. The flak jacket provided protection primarily from ammunition fragments and was ineffective against most pistol and rifle threats. Flak jackets were also very cumbersome and bulky. Lightweight Body Armor It would not be until the late 1960s that new fibers were discovered that made todays modern generation of cancelable body armor possible. The National Institute of Justice or NIJ initiated a research program to investigate the development of lightweight body armor that on-duty policemen could wear full time. The investigation readily identified new materials that could be woven into a lightweight fabric with excellent ballistic resistant properties. Performance standards were set that defined ballistic resistant requirements for police body armor. Kevlar In the 1970s, one of the most significant achievements in the development of body armor was the invention of DuPonts Kevlar ballistic fabric. Ironically, the fabric was originally intended to replace steel belting in vehicle tires. The development of kevlar body armor by NIJ was a four-phase effort that took place over several years. The first phase involved testing kevlar fabric to determine whether it could stop a lead bullet. The second phase involved determining the number of layers of material necessary to prevent penetration by bullets of varying speeds and calibers and developing a prototype vest that would protect officers against the most common threats: the 38 Special and the 22 Long Rifle bullets. Researching Kevlar Bullet Proof Vests By 1973, researchers at the Armys Edgewood Arsenal responsible for the bulletproof vest design had developed a garment made of seven layers of Kevlar fabric for use in field trials. It was determined that the penetration resistance of Kevlar was degraded when wet. The bullet resistant properties of the fabric also diminished upon exposure to ultraviolet light, including sunlight. Dry-cleaning agents and bleach also had a negative effect on the antiballistic properties of the fabric, as did repeated washing. To protect against these problems, the vest was designed with waterproofing, as well as with fabric coverings to prevent exposure to sunlight and other degrading agents. Medical Testing of Body Armor The third phase of the initiative involved extensive medical testing,  to determine the performance level of body armor that would be necessary to save police officers lives. It was clear to researchers that even when a bullet was stopped by the flexible fabric, the impact and resulting trauma from the bullet would leave a severe bruise at a minimum and, at worst, could kill by damaging critical organs. Subsequently, army scientists designed tests to determine the effects of blunt trauma, which is injuries suffered from forces created by the bullet impacting the armor. A byproduct of the research on blunt trauma was the improvement of tests that measure blood gasses, which indicate the extent of injuries to the lungs. The final phase involved monitoring the armors wearability and effectiveness. An initial test in three cities determined that the vest was wearable, it did not cause undue stress or pressure on the torso, and it did not prevent the normal body movement necessary for police work. In 1975, an extensive field test of the new Kevlar body armor was conducted, with 15 urban police departments cooperating. Each department served a population larger than 250,000, and each had experienced officer assault rates higher than the national average. The tests involved 5,000 garments, including 800 purchased from commercial sources. Among the factors evaluated were comfort ​when worn for a full working day, its adaptability in extremes of temperature, and its durability through long periods of use. The demonstration project armor issued by NIJ was designed to ensure a 95 percent probability of survival after being hit with a .38 caliber bullet at a velocity of 800 ft/s. Furthermore, the probability of requiring surgery if hit by a projectile was to be 10 percent or less. A final report released in 1976 concluded that the new ballistic material was effective in providing a bullet resistant garment that was light and wearable for full-time use. Private industry was quick to recognize the potential market for the new generation of body armor, and body armor became commercially available in quantity even before the NIJ demonstration program.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Diabetes Is The Most Common Form Of Diabetes - 1774 Words

Living in the hot zone of Nashville, Tennessee, Deonta Ridley and many other African Americans are at a greater risk for diabetes. Deonta, an 18-year-old high school senior, lives in the diabetes hot zone — a cluster of predominantly African-American, inner-city neighborhoods where diabetes rates soar to more than double the national average (Wilemon, 2013).. Deonta is overweight, has high cholesterol and blood pressure, which puts him at greater risk for developing diabetes. Living in a low-income neighborhood, being surrounded by much violence and many unhealthy food venues, also, puts Deonta at a disadvantage for leading a healthy life. Diabetes disproportionately affects African Americans because of their environment and low socioeconomic status. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S., according to the CDC. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes (CDC, 2014). 90- 95% of the people with diabetes have Type 2 (CDC, 2014). Historically, type 2 diabetes has been diagnosed primarily in middle-aged adults (CDC, 2014). Today, however, adolescents and young adults are developing type 2 diabetes at an alarming rate. Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, the body produces insulin but either their pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body cannot use the insulin well enough. This is called insulin resistance. When there isn t enough insulin or the insulin is not used as it should be, glucose can t get into the body s cells. When glucoseShow MoreRelatedDiabetes Is The Most Common Form Of Diabetes849 Words   |  4 PagesType 2 Diabetes is the most common form of diabetes in adults. It accounts for approximately 90%-95% of diagnosed diabetes in adults in the United States (cdc.gov, n.d.). Newly diag nose cases of diabetes tripled from 1980-2011 in the United States. It is a costly and deadly disease. Because there are many comorbidities and complications associated with uncontrolled diabetes, it is essential to treat diabetes effectively. Clinicians deal with this ongoing problem on a daily basis. Therefore,Read MoreDiabetes Is The Most Common Form Of Diabetes1716 Words   |  7 PagesDiabetes in the United States Introduction Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes which affects 90% to 95% of the population. In the United States, approximately 1.7 million new cases of diabetes were identified in 2012 and the disease affects 29 million Americans, or 9.3 percent of the population (Statistics About Diabetes, 2014). 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Importantly, it also increases the rate ofRead MoreMuscular Dystrophy Is The Most Common Form Of Diabetes1935 Words   |  8 Pagesall had the most common and severe form of Muscular Dystrophy, soon to be known as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (NIH 2016). Muscular dystrophy refers to a group of more than 30 genetic diseases including Distal MD, Emery-Dreifuss MD, Facioscapulohumeral MD, Limb-gird le MD, Becker MD, Congenital MD, Myotonic MD and Oculopharyngeal MD. This review however will just focus on Duchenne muscular dystrophy. 1.2 Duchenne muscular dystrophy Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is the most common form of MD that usuallyRead MoreDiabetes- Informative Speech outline Essay892 Words   |  4 Pagestypes of diabetes. I. Introduction A. Attention Getter:   Show of hands. How many of you all have or know someone with Diabetes? B. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

The Problems Of Publishing In English In free essay sample

Egypt Essay, Research Paper An Overview of the jobs of Printing in English in Egypt A study by Ib Knutsen. Supervised by Dr. Hussein Amin. Course 504.Ib @ aucegypt.eduhttp: //ibsweb.findhere.com Contents Introduction 3 Presentation of Method 3 List of intreviews 4 Discussion of Method 5 Presentation of Results.. 6 Printing 6 Censorship 8 Summary of the different attacks to censorship 9 # 8211 ; Al Ahram 9 # 8211 ; The Middle East Times 10 # 8211 ; The Cairo Times 11 Culture 11 # 8211 ; Language 12 # 8211 ; Reading Patterns 13 Discussion. 14 Decision 15 Appendices.. 16 # 8211 ; Interview with Middle East Times 16 # 8211 ; Interview with Egypt s Insight 18 # 8211 ; Interview with the Al-Ahram Weekly 19 # 8211 ; Interview with Cairo Times 21 # 8211 ; Letter from Exile, Thomas Cromwell 23 # 8211 ; Interview with the censor, by MET 24 IntroductionEnglish publication in Egypt is non extended. Merely eight magazines and newspapers come out on a regular footing. Merely a minority of the Egyptian population k nows the English linguistic communication and half the population is illiterate. Yet these are non the largest jobs confronting the English speech production imperativeness. Social, economical and political issues are closely intertwined in Egypt. Magazines or intelligence publications face extra obstructions seeking to cover these subjects. How do the different editors approach or overcome these jobs? My research inquiry is An Overview of the Problems of Publishing in English in Egypt. There is no province censoring of Egyptian publications. Is the right of freedom of look therefore secured in Egypt? In order to examine these inquiries I went to the different English speech production publications and talked with their several editors. I told them what I was working on, and tried to do the editors comment on their state of affairs in their ain words. There are several dimensions to printing in English in Egypt. The linguistic communication barrier, the Egyptian imperativeness license, Matters of national security and usage are but some. I asked the editors explicitly to give an appraisal on the significance of these, if they had non already done so. I talked with Al-Ahram, Hani Shukrallah, Pull offing EditorThe Cairo Times, Ms Diana Digges, EditorThe Cairo Times, Mr Hisham Kassem, PublisherThe Middle East Times, Mr Rod Craig, Managing Editor Egypt s Insight, Ms Nahed Yowakim, Editor-in-ChiefEgypt Today, Mr Scott Squire, Copy EditorI wrote their remarks down in stenography. If there were remarks I was unsure of, I asked once more. I spent about 40 proceedingss with each editor. When each interview was done, I spent an extra 15 proceedingss composing down a sum-up of the contents. I besides filled out the losing parts of the stenography text. I did my first interview with the editor of the Cairo times, Ms Diana Digges. She had prepared a figure of CT issues incorporating articles on the subject. These were most helpful in chalk outing out the field. I used this information as background for my following interviews with Egypt Today, The Middle East Times, The Al-Ahram, Egypt s insight and eventually, Cairo Times once more. This clip with the publishing house, Mr Hisham Kassem. In add-on, The interview wit h Egypt Today was brief, but consistent with the other findings. I found an interview with Mr Lutfi Abdel Kader, who heads the commission for foreign publications in Egypt, and an unfastened missive from Mr Thomas Cromwell, editor in expatriate for the Middle East Times. Both of these secondary beginnings were posted on the cyberspace with the permission of the Middle East Times. The MET besides have a nexus to the digital freedom web on their home page. I failed to acquire in touch with the staying regular publication, The Egyptian Gazette. As with the Al-Ahram, the EG is besides a authorities paper. It is, nevertheless, non considered a important publication in Egypt. The Al-Ahram s pull offing editor, Hani Shukrallah, thought it valueless to be better than the EG. He commented further that We fundamentally see what they do and seek non to make the same. When editor-in-chief Ms. Nahed Yowakim of Egypt s Insight studies what is allowed to print in Egypt, she does non look in the EG , she looks in the Al-Ahram. Discussion of MethodI accounted a figure of troubles while roll uping the information. First of all were the job of communicating. Though The Egyptian Gazette and the Al-Ahram by far were the most hard to acquire in touch with, Egypt Today, Egypt s Insight and the Middle East Times were besides clip devouring. This was non merely due to busy lines, as was the instance with the authorities documents, but instead the busy docket of the editors. They often travel, have meetings or merely are out. As a consequence, the information assemblage took much more clip than anticipated. It must be added that every bit shortly as I did pull off to acquire through to the right individual, they were really forthcoming in puting an assignment every bit shortly as possible. They besides showed considerable involvement in the undertaking, and were really helpful to give positions on the subject. As I mentioned, I had problem to the extent of non pull offing to acquire in touch with the Egyptian Gazette. I was besides unable to acquire in touch with Egypt Today s publishing house, Ms Anne Marie Harrison or the editor Mursi Saad el-Din. I did correspond with the publication over legion Electronic mails, and with their transcript editor, Mr Scott Squire, over the telephone. He confirmed the major points, but I have non presented Egypt Today s positions individually in the paper, due to my inability to acquire in touch with the editor or the publishing house. I do non believe that this significantly alters the cogency of the paper. I did talk with a bulk of the publications. I spoke with all the private news-weeklies, the major authorities hebdomadally and one of the two lifestyle magazines published monthly. The responses were really similar. The English publications in Egypt face the same jobs. Their attack varies somewhat. I have no ground to believe that Egypt Today or the Egyptian Gazette usage a significantly different attack than the other media. I think the dependability therefore is high. Presentation of resultsThe jobs of printing in English in Egypt can be divided into three subdivisions ; The job of publication, the job of censoring and the job of civilization. I will discourse each subdivision individually. The publication subdivision regards the industry. I have hence included the responses by the different editors in the description, instead than as separate subdivisions. In the censoring subdivision, there are discrepancies among the different publications. I have hence separated it in two, showing the general construct of censoring first and the specifics of each publication last. When it comes to civilization, the responses were rather similar, so I have grouped them under the different cultural sub-headings as I thought it appropriate. PublishingThe Freezone for concern was set up in the satellite metropolis of Cairo, Nasser metropolis, to advance the development of endeavor. Business could register with the min istry of inside to acquire a license to run in the zone. In order to get down a publication company, an extra set of standards had to be met. This was due to the national security facet of publication. The standard for registering as a publication house used to be 200 stockholders with equal portions. This made it practically impossible to achieve the license. Merely one publication in Egypt managed to register harmonizing to these standards. This is an Arabic publication, and the proprietor has the power of lawyer over all the other portions in the company. This indicates that the staying 199 stockholders are alleged straw work forces, registered as proprietors simply for legal grounds. In 1996, this jurisprudence was revised. Now merely 10 stockholders were necessary, but blessing of the province security and the national security was necessary. You need to be more than good friends with these to acquire your blessing, harmonizing to Mr Hishan Kissem, Three Arabic publications wer e approved, but no English 1s. Entreaties can be brought before the higher imperativeness council. If they refuse, nevertheless, one must use once more. This procedure have been farther limited by a new jurisprudence demanding a Cabinet permission for all applications. Their determination is concluding, and can non be appealed. This efficaciously bars publications considered unwanted by the authorities to print in Egypt. The English publications in Egypt are based in Egypt. Their offices are in Cairo, their journalists live in here, as do their readers. The companies who advertise in the publications are registered in Egypt. Yet the publications are considered foreign. Of the English speech production imperativeness in Egypt, merely the governmental Al-Ahram and the Egyptian Gazette have Egyptian publication licenses. The authorities is loath to put an straight-out prohibition on publications in Egypt. This gives the publications the chance to publish in another state and export the publication from at that place to Egypt. The most usual topographic point to registry is in Cyprus, and the name for Egyptian publications both Arabic and English printed outside Egypt has come to be called the Cyprus imperativeness # 8211 ; irrespective whether it is published at that place or non. The fiscal state of affairs for the Cyprus imperativeness is really unstable. They are virtually unable to acquire bank loans, as they are non registered as a company in Egypt. Selling equity portions is for the same grounds impossible. The foreign publications are non allowed to publicize on broadcast telecasting, which inhibits publicity on the most powerful media channel. Economic growing, which is indispensable for any company, is badly limited. All companies outside the Freezone have to pay revenue enhancement, including the Cyprus imperativeness. The Al-Ahram is printed in the freezone. The largest load is presently the general advertisement revenue enhancement of 36 % . Income g enerated by advertisement is a major subscriber to the balance of publishing houses. Adding a 3rd to the monetary value of ads make them about impossible to sell. Alternatively, one can allow the publication cover the disbursal, with the resulting loss of income. Most of the English publishing houses have managed to avoid the advertisement revenue enhancement by paying the import responsibility on published stuff. This revenue enhancement is between 7 10 % on publication cost, i.e. a significantly smaller sum. They argue you can non pay domestic revenue enhancement and import responsibility at the same clip. The authorities remains open, and will possibly merely come to a decision when they want to take an unwanted publishing house. CensorshipConcerning all publications in Egypt are the Libel Torahs. These were introduced in 1993, and are described by Mr Shukrallah as absurd. It is the public prosecuting officer who is responsible for pressing charges. Charges are merely being press ed if you attack the incorrect people Simple statements as stupidity, can gain 6 months in gaol whereas people who merely defame can merely maintain on traveling with their Interior Ministry backup. Without a publication license, the intelligence publications are in add-on apt to censorship. National security concerns are at interest. It is the ministry of information that is the highest authorization on imperativeness affairs. They authorise a council to take attention of the foreign imperativeness. Each publication must demo the publication upon reaching in Egypt to this council. This is a hazardous concern. If the council do non O.K. of the content, they have the power of censoring the issue. A prohibition represents a considerate loss if the publication has already gone to publish. Agreements are being made with the censors. Blueprints of the publication are shown before it is printed, and if there are troublesome articles underway, these are shown excessively. The censors so ta ke what they think necessary. The censors are on a mission from the Information Ministry. They are under force per unit area. If they allow controversial stuff to acquire published, it is they who will hold to take the heat for it. From the censor s position so, it will be better to take out every bit much as possible. The editors know this. They bargain with the detectors, rewrite articles and refer to the Al-Ahram. Though all the foreign imperativeness is affected by censoring, it is the intelligence publications that are hit the worst. Shorter deadlines pressure them to move fast on events, Egypt s Insight, Egypt Today, Business Today and PC universe are published on a monthly footing. They can take into history the developments of the other publications when they decide what to print. Ms Nahed Yowakim of Egypt s Insight really considers being a monthly an advantage, as they can take the clip to wait until Al-Ahram covers a peculiar intelligence narrative ( gain their error ) If they have covered a subject, it is regarded as common cognition. Egypt s Insight can so make a full characteristic on it even from another angle and refer to the Al-Ahram coverage of the same subject. Summary of the different attacks to censorship The Al-AhramThe Al-Ahram is the oldest and largest authorities paper in Egypt. They publish an Arabic daily and an English weekly. The Al-Ahram is non censored. They want to print serious news media, respect authorities position, while avoid being seen as a propaganda sheet for the authorities. So they adhere to some limitations. They are left mostly alone if certain ruddy lines are non overstepped, The major subject to go forth entirely is the nexus between large concern and authorities. And unfavorable judgment of the president, of class. But the Al-Ahram by and large does non knock members of the authorities. They do non delve up information about authorities functionaries either. It would be interesting, of class, but since everybody i s making concern with everybody, it is better to go forth it. But, if other documents have found something out and printed it, the Al-Ahram refer both sides of the narrative, being careful to province who says what. If the regulations are broken, the editor will merely be transferred. It is non unusual to be transferred to the information ministry. Or to a correspondence occupation in Luxor, to mention Mr Craig. The Al-Ahram is the most influential paper in Egypt. The Al-Ahram is considered to being able to acquire away with a batch more than the English speech production imperativeness in general. Egypt s insight usage illustrations from the Al-Ahram when they argue with the censors for an article. If something has been published in the Al-Ahram, the detectors can legalize to their supervisors why they let something through. The Middle East TimesMr Thomas Cromwell of the Middle East Times has been refused re-entry into Egypt after a trip abroad. He has written an essay included in the extension of this paper. I talked to the pull offing editor, Mr Rod Craig. The MET shows the cogent evidence of the publication to the censors. In return they take out paragraphs instead than articles. He describes the relationship with the censors as good. They have statements with the censors, where they take part on an equal footing. Sometimes they win through with an article, and sometimes they lose. They have developed an apprehension of what can be published. Sing a peculiar article that was banned, he commented We were forcing it truly. Criticism of the president is out of the inquiry. Government functionaries vary, and even Mubarak has commented that The promises made by some of my curates are about every bit dependable as those made by Netanyahu Criticism of the Military, Saudi Arabia and the Copts are to be dealt with extreme attention. Saudi Arabia is a considerable investor in Egypt. Upon unfavorable judgment, they have besides threatened to throw out the 100s of 100 0s of Egyptians that they employ. The recent statute law in the US against spiritual persecution makes the Coptic issue even more sensitive. Yet, Mr Craig gets the feeling that most governments are corrupt, and that the censoring is to forestall the denudation of this The MET s point of view is that a good journalist can print anything. It is hence a affair of sophisticated look to avoid holding statements and paragraphs removed. Though a more blunt manner of stating the truth, Mr Craig has assurance in his readers to set two and two together The purpose of the Middle East Times is non to be censored though we do acquire a batch of attending when we do. The purpose of the MET is to inform the populace in an nonsubjective manner, and traveling where the information takes ( us ) . The Cairo TimesThe Cairo Times have been banned six times this twelvemonth. They are in a changeless struggle with the detectors. The detectors contact the Ministry of Information when they are in uncertaint y. It is the Ministry of Information that Cairo Times truly have a job with. The censoring frequently comes as a consequence of neglecting to demo all the articles to the censors. When the newsmagazine is on the streets, it is frequently excessively late to censor it. As a consequence, the undermentioned issue is banned as a warning. Mr Hisham Kissem regards his publication as being figure one one the authorities s most wanted list of publications to shut down. Yet Mr Kissem thinks the jobs of printing in general in Egypt are most at hand. As for free address, Mr Kissem Bankss on Globalisation CultureCultural jobs arise when garnering information. These jobs include the linguistic communication barrier. Cultural jobs can besides include the motive of authorities employees to talk out. It will rarely be honoring for them to make so, and will sometimes take to problem. In add-on, there is a cultural difference between Arabs and Westerners in respect to information. This is perceived t o be due to the differences in educational system and the Arabic civilization in general. There is a general intuition towards people who ask inquiries in Egypt. In authorities, this is even more so. Answering inquiries will seldom bring wagess, though it might convey jobs for the person. When the people who ask inquiries are non Egyptians, there seems to be an even stronger ground to be careful. All the English speech production publications face these jobs. Even the governmental Al-Ahram # 8211 ; though Mr Shukrallah observes that transporting the name Al-Ahram do do it a batch easier for our journalists. Mr Shukrallah thinks the Al-Ahram s focal point with Egyptian eyes, sometimes may look odd to the alien. Mr Craig has noted this difference every bit good. Egyptian journalists are witting of Egypt s repute, and this may impact their information assemblage, he says. On the other manus, Egyptian journalists might see beyond this, and gain the positive facets of transparence. They might therefore go the strongest nexus we have, Mr Craig continues. Egyptian journalists face harsher intervention from the authorities. As a consequence, they sometimes request holding their name withheld upon being published. This is non an unusual pattern in any of the publications, once more with the exclusion of the Al-Ahram. Says Ms Yowakim: A large journalist in the Al-Ahram can print anything, a position merely partially agreed upon by Mr Shukrallah. LanguageMost of the English publications in Egypt header with the linguistic communication barrier the same manner. The Al-Ahram usage bi-lingual Egyptians, so they have small jobs. Egypt s Insight has no bilingual journalists. They do non see this a major job. The most of import thing is that they know what inquiries to inquire. Mr Scott Squire of Egypt Today really see the linguistic communication barrier an advantage. Most of the exiles do non talk Arabic either, and this makes publication in English an sole advantage. This is a position shared by Mr Kassem of the Cairo Times every bit good, who thinks printing in English facilitates selling advertisement infinite. And, he adds, publication in English makes it easier to win sympathy abroad. It is the lone force per unit area against the authorities to go forth us entirely. Reading patternsMs Yowakim of Egypt s Insight thinks the educational system plays a decisive function in how Egyptians view the printed word. Due to the tremendous volume of information they have to larn by bosom, they stop reading for leisure one time they get the opportunity, she says. We find that a batch of our concern readers merely look at the narratives that carry images of well-known concern individuals or famous persons, she continues. This is a fact they take into history when they plan each issue. Egypt Today portion this position. The demands of the different readership groups can be different to the extent of struggle. E.g. Features, which are by and large read by the al iens while arousing small enthusiasm amongst the Egyptian readers. DiscussionThere are a figure of grounds why the imperativeness face institutional limitations. The Egyptian printing license seem to be in limited supply due to the authoritiess wish to command the national information. Restricting the beginnings makes it easier for them to make so. Most of the publication obstacles seem to come from this want. Censoring seems to hold a somewhat different map. Censorship is a last-minute prohibition on paragraphs, articles or whole issues when the issue can t otherwise be stopped. It is thought that the major ground for censoring is to conceal links between the authorities and concern. The cultural jobs of printing in English in Egypt can be overcome. The linguistic communication is non a important barrier. There is a civilization of intuition towards people who ask inquiries. I have no ground to believe the authorities functionaries in Egypt are much different than the bureaucratism s anyplace, nevertheless. A free imperativeness is regarded as an indispensable ticker Canis familiaris, for democracy. It is sometimes referred to as the 4th province power. The 4th province power can neer be more independent than the bench, legislative and executive subdivisions of authorities are of each other. Can a free imperativeness exist in a state where the links between authorities and private economical minutess are to be kept secret at all costs? Where the surrounding states are capable of throw outing 100s of 1000s of Egyptian workers, and endanger to make so upon unfavorable judgment? The institutional jobs of printing in Egypt cover a figure of facets non needfully reserved for the English speech production imperativeness. The Torahs of registering printing companies in Egypt present impossible barriers. The revenue enhancement Torahs sing advertisement looms with menaces to control income. The Freezone revenue enhancement freedoms might good be used selectively, unde r the shield of national involvement, national security, or protection of national establishments. The definitions of libel are highly broad. The jurisprudence is otiose. Libel should be a affair of civilian tribunal process, and non a public one. But the largest job might be the one of printing industry in Egypt in the long tally. Mr Kassem observes that it will be impossible to sell off parts of the present governmental imperativeness. Cipher will desire to purchase portions in a company that is inefficaciously run, without being able to streamline it. Egypt has merely seven day-to-day newspapers. The little island of Malta has four. In relation to population, they have a 1300:1 better coverage of newspapers. The significance of each newspaper in Egypt therefore histories for about 200 Maltese newspapers. Bing careful, of class, that this lone serves as an illustration for the deceit of the Egyptian publication industry. On other histories, the Maltese illustration is unequal. The political weight each of the seven newspapers in Egypt carry is tremendous. The national security deductions are no less important. When the inevitable denationalization moving ridge catches up with the publication industry, they will confront immense jobs. International documents and involvements will be able to get down both English and Arabic documents, and run in free competition to the national documents. The nationalised documents can non be sold off, and few will desire to purchase portions with the present direction. They will hold jobs accommodating to the new environment. The Egyptian authorities will hold to see this when they make new Torahs for publication. It is non merely a affair of national security to command the publication industry in the short term. It is really a affair of national security to hold a national publication industry at all. ConclusionThere are obvious jobs of printing in English in Egypt. Language is regarded as being a minor job. The chief obstr uctions are the institutionalized barriers to printing. On the other side is Egypt s dependence upon trade and touristry. They receive a significant sum of assistance from the US. The English publications are one of Egypt s many faces abroad. It would make significant international fad if Egypt were to censor them All the independent documents think the freedom of address has loosened up in recent times. Mr Kassem Bankss on globalization, to acquire the concluding liberalization. I think the freedom of the imperativeness will germinate parallel to the development of the political system. In fact, the imperativeness plays a important function in the dynamism of the development of the political system in Egypt. Keeping named higher authorities functionaries responsible of their actions # 8211 ; which would be unheard of merely a twosome of twelvemonth s ago # 8211 ; is now usual in the documents. The Government is going witting of this duty. Government functionaries are scared of th e Al-Ahram, The Cairo Times and the Middle East Times. Sooner or subsequently this duty will hold to be institutionalised by jurisprudence. And jurisprudence that is enforced on an equal footing, for all its citizens, is the basis on which all democracies are built. AppendicesThe Middle East TimesThe largest foreign weeklyMr Rod CraigManaging EditorNovember 1998Printed in Athens, Greece Readers: chiefly expats, embassy personell and international. We aim for a wider circle. The Middle East Times used to cover the part, and we might get down that up once more. Cairo is the capital of the Arab universe, and therefore most of import. Few of our journalists master Arabic to a fluid extent, and we are dependent on the good will of transcribers and some bi-lingual native Arabic talkers. Say there is something secret traveling on, and the journalist covering the event does non cognize Arabic. If the transcriber figures the information might damage Egypt s repute, he or she might keep back some of the information. News narratives depend on the weakest nexus, and this is might be the Arabic journalist. On the other manus, the Arabic journalist might hold a more unfastened position and therefore go the strongest nexus. The job is, you don t know the difference. I am merely raising the issue here. I am non speaking about anyone in peculiar, nor about the Middle East Times. There is a different outlook between Arab and Western journalists. Merely like there are differences between American and British, and I am certain Norse journalists have their particular belongingss as good. Journalists have different moralss and point of views. Yet the differences among western journalists are non as widely apart as Western and Arabic. First of wholly, the western construct of free address is interpreted otherwise here. Arabic journalists are besides really witting of Egypt s repute, and this might change their coverage. But, of class, there are exclusions. Some Arabic journalists ha ve studied in the West, and seen how the imperativeness works at that place. Others merely want alteration. Their cognition of Arabic therefore makes them the strongest nexus in publication. Arabic journalists sometime ask to hold their name left out, as they know they will acquire into problem. One really got thumbed. But it s non merely here journalists are acquiring into problem. Whenever they are a nuisance, journalists are harassed. The map of the imperativeness I think is first of all to inform the populace. Journalists are, or should be, representatives of the populace. They should therefore investigation inquiries in order to convey light to different subjects relevant for the populace. They by and large should non hold sentiments by themselves. This happens of class, but a journalist should endeavor to be devoid of feelings. Jorunalists should be driven to wherever the information leads them. Merely like the police officer is for the jurisprudence. Arab journalists have ano ther function. They don t respect themselves as public retainers. The chief restraints to printing are self-constraints. The paper is responsible to its readers. So even in a state where the imperativeness is free to discourse whatever it wants, it restricts itself to what the readers can take. Most Arab journalists have neer been without institutionalized censoring or faith. They are used to be within reasonably narrow walls. In Egypt one can non knock the President. One should be most careful with respect to knocking old presidents as good. Last hebdomad ( ) a column we did on King Fahd was taken out. We were forcing it truly. The editorialist subsequently had problem traveling abroad due to accusals of danger to national security. After the president, one must go forth the military alone. Last, one can non knock Saudi Arabia. There are, of class, a figure of other issues one must avoid every bit good, but these three are sacred. For foreign publications, these regulations must be learned by experience. For the people who live here on the other manus, they know precisely where the bounds go. Egyptian documents are non censored. Censoring in Egypt was abolished by Sadat in 1974. Most of the influental documents are governmental, and if their editors step over the line, they are moved to a correspondence occupation in Luxor. They know what to make and what non to. Besides, it is the authorities who issues publishing licenses. The foreign imperativeness has to demo transcripts of its publications to the Advisory commettee. They cut out the articles they don Ts like, and have the authorization to censor an issue. It is of no intent to hold the Middle East Times off the streets, as our intent is to inform people. We have developed a particular agreement with the censors. We submit proofs to them, and they cut out paragraphs instead than taking whole articles. It is to their advantage besides to hold this relationship. It looks bad for them every bit good. We used to go forth the paragraphs space, but that is now illegal. But a good journalist can acquire an ything published. So when it comes to the things that are of import, one must seek to be cagey. For case, alternatively of utilizing the instead obvious word Anguish, we replace it with forceful persuasion. The readers will hold to set two and two together when they read the articles. The censors are merely making their occupation. If they let something controversial base on balls, they will acquire into problem. There is no usage in traveling against them, and holding a good relationship will give us more freedom. We have made an understanding, and by that the authorities is becomingmore favorable to us. I don t think it is just of The Cairo Times to rip off on this agreement. They have published issues without jostling it to the censors, and have had their undermentioned issue banned as retaliation. We should seek to contend for freedom of look together. It does non make any good to seek to besiege the ordinances that are agreed upon. The lone casualties will be members of the consultative commettee, and perchance a complete prohibition on the Cairo Times. We are up against benevolent people, and non the wicked. Egypt is dependent upon trade, and so they have to be reasonably sensible. We really acquire more readers when we get banned. But if it happens frequent ly adequate, I suppose people merely acquire used to it. My occupation as an editor is to acquire the paper out and to state the truth. It serves no intent to hold it taken off the street. I am responsible for the 30 or so occupations as good, which besides must be taken into consideration. It s an interesting experience all this. One gets the feeling that most governments are corrupt and censoring is to forestall the denudation of this. We are all right with the authorities. The publishing side, on the other manus, is extremely unstable. The Cyprus publications were first outright banned. The instance was so taken to the Supreme Court, and they gave a opinion of the forbiddance as unconstitutional. Then the authorities introduced 36 % revenue enhancement on magazines This revenue enhancement makes it hard to sell advertisement infinite. We merely went back to Greece to publish. It is really cheaper to purchase a plane ticket and pay a individual to travel back and Forth with the co gent evidence, than to publish in the Freezone. The freedom of look in Egypt is a batch freer than it used to be. Criticism of members in the cabinet is allowed, and even Mubarak was quoted as stating The promises made by some of my curates are about every bit dependable as those made by Netanyahu. The ( kosh ) incidence seems to hold been blown out of proportion. The Copts in America got clasp of the narrative, and some people got carried off. It took the attending off us, we were a minor enemy compared to this. The authorities learned to be more unfastened. When you try to hush something up, and it doesn t work, cipher will believe the updated narrative by the authorities. What they should hold done was to convey it all in the unfastened. If they had held a imperativeness conference and referred what had happened, and what steps were taken to forestall its being repeated, the incident would non hold been blown so out of proportion. I hope they learned their lesson. Egypt s Insight Lifestyle monthly magazineMs. Nahed YowakimEditor-in-ChiefDecember 1998 Printed in CyprusPublishes between 7-11 000 issues per monthSells to concern and travel related industry, expatriates and international Problems of printing in English in Egypt. Egypt s penetration has a varied reader circle. The aliens and exiles tend to read the characteristics and the longer articles, whereas the concern readers simply tend to look through the magazine If there is a image of an executive or a assemblage of known faces, they might read the sub-headings. It is non in the Egyptian up-bringing to read for leisure. They know English, but they are jammed with excessively much stuff to analyze by bosom. The reading stuff is non by their ain pick, and when they eventually can take, they stop reading wholly. Once I was on an plane with Egypt Air, I asked the hostess in Arabic for something to read. She was puzzled, and asked Why # 8211 ; there is a movie screening. She merely could non understand how I could prefer reading to watching any peculiar film. There is by and large a intuition on people who ask inquiries in this state. If the individuals inquiring them in add-on are aliens, it is non made easier. Photography is even worse. We will for case instead direct a immature female Egyptian to take images. . Language, nevertheless, is non so of import. At the present clip we don Ts have any bi-lingual journalists. IWe have transcribers who know arabic. The most of import thing is that the journalists know which inquiries to inquire, and how to acquire information. We have a good relationship with the censors. We show the consultative commission dubious articles, and the cogent evidence of the magazine. If we are covering anything controversial, we show them articles the Al-Ahram has written on the same subject. Politicss and Saudi Arabia is checked this manner. The ground why Saudi is so sacred, is non merely for political and economical issues. Saudi is a major employer of Egy ptians. If the Saudis want, they can throw out these people. Except for the fact of these people losing their occupations, the societal effects of such a organic structure of people coming back to unemployement in Egypt would be terrible. So in add-on to the political and economical dealingss with Saudi, there are tremendous societal dealingss. A author would non desire to be responsible for the ejection of all these people. A large author in Al-Ahram can print anything. This manner they have backup in instance their higher-ups come down on them. They are scared as good, as they will run into problem if something controversial is passed on with their knowing. We have kept a clean record, and this makes it harder for them to censor articles. I have been told if I stay off from certain issues in my first twelvemonth, I can be more make bolding the 2nd. Homosexuality, for case, is the one societal issue to avoid at the present. Except for that, most societal issues can be written about . And we have. The thing is to work with the censors instead than against them. We have a great advantage by being a monthly publication. When it comes to controversial issues such as the Coptic incidence in upper Egypt or the teenage stone music fans who went to imprison last twelvemonth, we can wait until the Government realises its error and so cover it. It is highly of import to endorse up the facts. Tape interviews and look into information. When good news media has been done, and the editors back up their authors # 8211 ; like Hishem Kassam and Diana Digges in the Cairo Times # 8211 ; it makes it much harder for the authorities to censor it. It is when trigger-happy new journalists starts hiting in all waies that they say no. A batch of the resistance newspapers work like this. Their attack is sleazy and un- serious. Like when the covered an un-named bellydancer s response of a payoff. If they had the information, they could print the names and descriptions. If they don Ts, they should go forth it. Government functionaries are afraid of the Al-Ahram. Writers such as Feroh Hosni have made ferocious onslaughts on curates. But so it has been good backed up. The job arises when authors in Al-Ahram are paid to compose up or down people. You neer truly cognize. We have uncertainnesss sing the publication side. There is a 36 % revenue enhancement on income generated by advertisement. We go to publish in Cyprus. When the magazine is imported into Egypt, we pay an import revenue enhancement. We do non believe it is sensible to pay both a domestic revenue enhancement on income generated in Cyprus, when we at the same clip are paying the import responsibilities. The import revenue enhancement is 7-10 % on printing costs. We hope our history of paying the import revenue enhancement will take the authorities to make up ones mind on its continuation, instead than implementing the strangeling advertisement revenue enhancement. It will be really hard to sell advertise ment infinite if the monetary values had to be increased by 36 % The Al-Ahram WeeklyThe largest authorities paperMr.Hani ShukrallahManaging EditorDecember 1998Printed in Cairo by the Al-Ahram imperativeness Sometimes we get off with things ( the other publications ) don T, because we are the Al-Ahram. The tradition of news media affects authors and editors. There are two facets we in Al-Ahram strive to set up. One: We like to go on in the tradition of nonsubjective news media, and Second: we do non like to sound like a propaganda sheet for the government.This is decidedly a job For case, we neer present statements made by the ministry of information or the constabulary as facts. We ever make it really clear where these statements come from. We are most careful to avoid printing such information as fact. We like to print both sides of the narrative, and what the other side thinks. There are decidedly restraints, but we stretch the borders. For case utilizing a page for human rights a nd mentioning phone Numberss in this issue ( 9 December ) is decidedly agitative. We are non being censored, and we have non yet received a warning. We can discourse any subject we d like, unless we receive a memo signifier the prosecuting officers office enforcing a prohibition on instances and subjects. These memos are public, and are being sent to all the media in Egypt. The Al-Ahram expressions at events with Egyptian eyes. We see jobs, events, political occurrences or whatever in this visible radiation. A foreign letter writer might concentrate on different subjects all together, or even see some of our articles as non of import. A foreign letter writer would see things in a different visible radiation. All journalists face jobs. It does do life easier for our journalists to hold the Al-Ahram name endorsing them up. We run contrary to the interior ministry s general policy on media in Egypt. We are decidedly the oldest non the first publication, and we were ever large. The old editor Heykem continued the tradition of Al-Ahram after Nassers nationalization. We are more like the British Times, and El Akbar is closer to the Mirror. The Egyptian Gazette is non truly anything. Basically we see what they do, and so we try non to make the same. I am happy about Cairo Times and Middle East Times for the competition. It is nonmeaningful to be better than the Egyptian Gazette. The Al-Ahram can make things the others would non be allowed to. We have written about anguish in Egyptian prisons, but we don t travel excessively much into the inside informations. We have characteristics on societal issues that reveal a batch. But we are ever careful that the Government position comes through. But so as a defined sentiment. It is non prevailing. We are stretching the bounds. If the authorities does non like it, they ll fire me # 8211 ; or person else in the column board. There is no censoring There is an exercising of self-censorship in chiseled facets. We do give certain infinite to the president, irrespective of what he is making. Some of this would non normally be considered newsworthy by western criterions of news media. Saudi Arabia is non needfully sacred. It depends on the subject. We covered the tribunal instance of Mubarak s boy, who took a Saudi paper to tribunal for libel. We leave the president, of class. We don t criticise anyone by name. We will describe it ( in the paper ) if person attacks a curate, and we will mention what the curate says himself. The libel Torahs in this state are absurd. Mustafa Bakim should be fined for libel, but he can travel on because he is assailing the right people. It is merely when you are assailing the incorrect people you have a libel. We report what each side is stating. Even our editorialists adhere to this. The imperativeness jurisprudence of 93 is merely like all the other imperativeness Torahs atrocious. It is absurd to Torahs against libel, and the application in this state is merely strong-arming . Equally long as you attack the right people it is all right, but Fahmi Mohammed gets six months for an nonsubjective statement. Hooliganism. I don t see anything loosening up in this state. That is a personal statement, of class, and non as editor of The Al-Ahram weekly. The sensationalist imperativeness is really calumniatory They have province backup. In fact, they have interior ministry backup. The authorities made a large hair about the xanthous imperativeness, and passed Torahs to forbid it, when they themselves were partially responsible for it. Criticism against corruptness and links between concern and province functionaries is to be avoided. The censoring and libel Torahs were all passed to impede the denudation of these links. The jurisprudence of 1993 was to close this up, and they succeeded. The authorities is happy to see the present state of affairs go on, every bit long as certain ruddy lines are non overstepped. We don t get into unknoting or researching who is pay ing who. It would be interesting, but everybody in authorities is making concern, so it is better to go forth it entirely. Leave it to the others. The Cairo TimesFortnightly Newsmagazine Mr Hisham KassemPublisherDecember 1998Printed in the Freezone, Nasr City The jobs of printing in English is merely a portion of the job with the publication industry in this state. In fact, there are a figure of advantages of publication in English. It is easier to sell advertisement infinite, and it is easier to win sympathy abroad. The support from abroad is the lone force per unit area to the authorities to go forth us entirely. But the job is non English publication, but the publication Torahs in general. Before the imperativeness Torahs of 1996, it was virtually impossible to register a publication company in Egypt. In order to register, one had to hold 200 stockholders all with equal portions. There is merely one company in Egypt, which is registered harmonizing to these standards. The proprie tor, ( Scoldel Midan ) , is a member of the ( Shia ) council. And in pattern he owns the ( Mahmood Shiewi ) himself, as he fundamentally merely got his friends to subscribe up.. He has the power of lawyer from all the stockholders and hires and fires at will. After 1996 one needed merely 10 stockholders still with equal portions. Three publications have managed to register ; all are Arabic talking newspapers. These are the EL Osboa, the El Nebaa and the Sortel Ooma. Yet you need permission from the province security and the national security. You need to be more than good friends with these to acquire your blessing. At present there are 22 other companies who have their applications in without acquiring a licence. You used to be able to appeal to the higher imperativeness council. Now you besides need a license from the cabinet before you can use, and their determination is concluding. I.e. you can non appeal. Janni, I tell you it s hard. When I went to the higher imperativeness cou ncil in September 96 to look into the Torahs, I discovered that they had non met for two old ages. They had all sorts of applications that were merely lying at that place Handicap magazines, athleticss magazines and so on. The higher imperativeness council does non desire to get down a new tendency by leting some and non others. When people threatened to action, the authorities intervened as they defined it as affairs of national security. In any instance, it is unconstitutional. No administrative edicts are immune from entreaty by the citizens. They can t alter the fundamental law, for they don Ts have that sort of firepower. So it is truly merely a inquiry of clip before they have to emancipate the imperativeness. Due to the unconstitutional enrollment Torahs, 80 % of Egypt s publications are registered abroad, and therefore treated as foreign. Censoring for Egyptian publications was abolished in 1974. Foreign documents are a affair of national security, and apt to censorship. Aro und 200 documents are presently registered in Cyprus. It does non truly count where they are registered, they will ever be regarded as portion of the Cyprus imperativeness. Some are unserious and a few are serious. A proportion of the documents are downright con-jobs, where commissioners of authorities publicizing topographic point ads and so divide the money with the publishing houses. But some are serious. The foreign imperativeness is non allowed to publicize on broadcast televison the most effectual manner of making the population. It is besides impossible to acquire bank loans, and selling equity portions is besides out of the inquiry. This places utmost restrictions to growing, This whole apparatus, where 80 % of Egypt s publications are registered abroad, comes all out of the authoritiess wish to retain control of content. There are merely about 6-7 publication houses in Egypt, who is publishing approximately 30 different publications. Malta has a population of 370 000, and h ave 4 dailies. We have 7 dailies and a population of 65 million. Malta is non an emerging state. It has no industry. With all due regard to the Maltese, if the Island sunk in the ocean # 8211 ; it would non remain in the headlines for more than a hebdomad. Yet they have 1300 times more publications than Egypt per capita. In add-on, the seven publication houses are losing money. The Al-Ahram might do a net income, but non more than a ten percent of its possible. The Cyprus imperativeness is weak, and it is improbable that these will last long into the hereafter. The Al-Ahram late bought a new imperativeness that cost 600 million Egyptian lbs. It runs for about an hr a twenty-four hours. It has capacity to run 20-22 hours a twenty-four hours. If the Al-Ahram was to better with coloring material, they had to purchase it. But it is non run harmonizing to economic rules. They are losing an tremendous sum of money each hr the imperativeness does non run. At the really least, it should ru n 15 hours a twenty-four hours. Printing in Egypt is a tool for the authorities to remain in power. They are willing to pay a batch for this. As a consequence, cipher in the upper or in-between direction of the Egyptian imperativeness knows how to run an economically sound operation, The Egyptian authorities does non gain that it is really a affair of national security to hold an information industry that works, When it is working 1300 times under the Maltese capacity, it can non be said to work. Egypt is dependent upon trade, and sooner or later all public companies will hold to be privatised. The publication industry, nevertheless, can non be sold as Stella or a cement mill. What happens if states a batch less unfastened than Egypt starts purchasing these companies. Say Iraq, Libya or Sudan buys the Al-Ahram. How will this affect national security? Yet merely selling equal proportions of portions will non work. Without a bulk, the purchaser will non hold an chance to re-organise a nd streamline the operation. With the makings of the current upper and in-between direction, who will desire to purchase a portion? And for all the attempts of the Egyptian authorities to command information, they do non win. I can compose an article for the Al Akbar, or I can direct it to any international paper. Peoples will still be able to read it. So the Egyptian authorities in world can t command what is published in Egypt. An ex. intelligence officer heads the censoring commission. He has a history from the province information services, which used to be where they placed troublesome authors. They d be transferred at that place, without specific undertakings to carry through. They were merely picking up their pay at the beginning of every month. But this adult male belongs to the cold war. He believes it is still on. Like the Nipponese solider they found 40 old ages after the war on a desolate island. He is 73 old ages old 13 old ages past retirement and gets a presidential e dict each twelvemonth leting him to go on. He shows up each twenty-four hours at one. I refuse to pay them anything. Not so much out of rule as of the cognition that they will bang the door in my face when we get banned. They are non powerful plenty to let go of anything. But it s truly merely a inquiry of clip. Who would hold thought the Berlin Wall would fall a month before? The authorities attending to information is closer to animal inherent aptitude. It is blinding them. It is really closer to treason that an carnal thrust allows you to pretermit an industry so related to national security. I am foremost on the most wanted list of publications the authorities wants to shut. I have been banned six times this twelvemonth a new record but the issue is non free address. The authorities is seeking to halt H2O fluxing down the drain. It is impossible. In two or three old ages they will hold to allow travel. We are looking at the hereafter of the full publication industry in Egypt. Wh at will we make with our free address if we have no agencies of printing it? Who will vie with Le Figaro or Le Monde when they start runing in this state? Letter from exileby Thomas Cronwell, Editor of Middle East TimesCopyright 1997 The Middle East Times. All rights reserved. As you may hold noticed, I am no longer printing and redacting this paper from a place in Cairo. I hope the conditions is all right in my absence ( I do love fall in Cairo ) because the ambiance of ever-tightening control of the imperativeness in Egypt is directing clouds of concern over the journalistic community and making ripplings of turbulency that are barely a benefit for Egypt. The new imperativeness jurisprudence, for one, can barely be considered media-friendly, with its prejudice clearly prefering an constitution unwilling to digest unfavorable judgment from the imperativeness. The libel Torahs are so strongly supportive of the possible marks of unmaskings, fact-finding coverage or critical commentar ies that editors and publishing houses are progressively worried about what they can publish. The Egyptian authorities often says the state has a free imperativeness. This is non truly the instance. Publications with any kind of political content are either controlled by the authorities or by political parties. With the state so wholly under the control of the governing National Democratic Party, this means that all the major media variety meats, such as the day-to-day Al Ahram, Al Akhbar and Al Gomhuriya, are government-controlled. The most significant non-government paper is the Wafd, owned by the party of that name. But its docket is to back up its proprietors and non to seek out the truth. With wireless and telecasting wholly owned and operated by the Ministry of Information, there are in fact no independent political newspapers in Egypt. Hence the jobs faced by this 1. When we pursue articles that seem of importance to Egypt, whether it be in the kingdom of security affairs, in ter-communal dealingss, offense, the political procedures and so on. We are frequently skating on thin ice because no other Egypt-based publication has raised these issues from an independent and nonsubjective vantage point. Hence each hebdomad we have to go through through a censoring procedure. ( Egyptian-based or -owned media are non censored, but editors and authors have to mind of the imperativeness jurisprudence, and there are some tabus, such as knocking the caput of province. All imported foreign-owned media are apt to censorship. ) Our dealingss with our censors are by and large good, and we frequently enter lively argument over what should be allowed and what non. Better to hold the authorities censor you than to hold to ban yourself, I would state. We can neer be certain what will put off dismay bells in the censor # 8217 ; s head, but narratives on everything from domestic force in Egyptian places ( based on a government-issued study ) , to a mostly sympathetic reapprai sal of President Hosni Mubarak # 8217 ; s 15 old ages in power have been cut or caused the paper to be banned wholly. An column I wrote knocking the Saudi system was pulled out, and seemingly my congratulations for Jordan was taken as an abuse to Egypt. Egypt is a great state with a great people. It has an alone history with a alone archaeological bequest. It besides has lovely countries of great natural beauty, such as the Red Sea with its motley fish, and dramatic stretches of the Nile and northern coastline. And yet, after a revolution that unseated the monarchy, a long experiment with socialism under Nasser, and more unfastened, business-oriented policies under Sadat and Mubarak, it still has non achieved a recognizable modern theoretical account for its being. Although the argument about Egypt s nowadays and hereafter that so involvements the Middle East Times seems worrying to some of Egypt # 8217 ; s official watchdog organisations, we believe the issues deserve aerating an d we will go on to make so every bit long as we are able.Press censor denies censorship Lutfi Abdel KaderHeads the office of the foreign pressby Richard Engel, Middle East Times staffCopyright 1997 The Middle East Times. All rights reserved. What is the function of this office? First of wholly if you come to me and inquire is at that place censorship or non, I would wish to state that censoring was canceled following a determination of President Sadat in 1974. Since this day of the month our work is merely now to see what the intelligence media write about Egypt. This is our work, to do certain articles are right or non. There is no censoring. If there is something we don t approve [ of ] we say to the people responsible: Don t compose it once more. Like what we do with your newspaper. This is the function of our office. Our office has two subdivisions. This is the subdivision for foreign intelligence. There is another subdivision at the Ministry of Information to cognize what the [ local ] documents write. [ In fact ] we assist the main editor to give him intelligence he can non obtain. We help the people working in London and abroad. This is the existent function of our office. Every hebdomad we bring in our newspaper and subsequently we receive a call stating no to such and such a paragraph or This article doesn T work, take it delight. Why does your office make this? It prevents us from describing. No we don t. But we prevent that which goes out of line merely this. We see the newspaper and our people read it and when they find anything that is non good for our state, we contact the people responsible and we ask them non to publish it once more and we release the paper. This is what we do. But I would wish to add that there is no censoring for the documents written in our state like Al Ahram and Al Akhbar. What about resistance documents like Al Shaab? No censoring at all. They print what they want to state and the people who are hurt by what is written in Al Shaab can reply, like what is written about Hassan Al Alfi. Alfi didn T do anything against Al Shaab, but merely expressed his sentiment to state that Al Shaab is incorrect. Al Shaab can publish what of all time they want? Yes. But we are in a different situation.Yes. Two hebdomads ago we printed a interlingual rendition of an sentiment taken from the Hakika newspaper and this office asked us non to publish it. But it was already on the streets. Why? Because you wrote it in a bad manner, non precisely likeAl Hakika. This is the of import point, to see what you took from Al Hakika and put in your paper. If you took it precisely like it was in Al Hakika, we wouldn Ts have opposed [ it ] . This is the difference between us. You wrote what the Hakika says, but non precisely what they wrote. We opposed because you said that Al Hakika wrote this. We referred to Al Hakika and found that what was written was non precisely like [ what ] you printed. How do you react to those abroad who c riticize Egypt for censoring? I would state to those people to see Egypt and see the people. They will happen all the foreign documents sold here. I say to them, come to Egypt and walk the streets and see the people selling all the foreign documents geting in Egypt. So there is no censoring. There is an office of censoring for film and books. How many offices are at that place? This is the office for foreign newspapers and books, for film there is another office. What subjects do you most frequently have to take? We don t remove, but merely if we are non satisfied with the coverage refering our president, our state, the people in our state and [ articles which ] study that everything is bad in our state # 8230 ; we are non satisfied. But we don t take it. What if you are non satisfied with an article in Newsweek, for illustration, what make you make? If it is a bad narrative and it is non suited to our policy and our attitude, we foremost of all warn their office here non to compos e such things. If they write it once more we are obliged non to let go of it. The one accident was when Anwar Sadat was the swayer of our state. He didn t accept what was written inNewsweek for 24 hours, but so he gave an order to this office to let go of the paper even though it was really bad. So we can state our censoring is non like in many Arab states or foreign states # 8230 ; we are really soft. We say now that all that is go oning in the universe is declared in many documents. Can a journalist be expelled if he writes excessively many articles that this office finds unsatisfactory? No, such things now are non done. To take a co-respondent from Egypt was canceled more than 25 old ages ago. We know what he s traveling to [ write ] is issued abroad, so we don t oppose it. Is this office medium to the demands of foreign policy? You know that Israel wrote many strong articles against Mubarak and we allowed them to come into the state. The last article was in the Jerusalem Post a nd the article was a bad onslaught on Mubarak, but we allowed it in. What was written was non refering policy, but his character. Are documents free to compose about President Mubarak s household? If you read our newspapers you will happen many narratives about Mubarak and his married woman and boies. There is no censoring. What about Islam? You can compose about Islam what you like, but non assailing it. You can state that Islam has many basic rules and things such as that. But you can non assail our Prophet Mohammed. You approve if anyone were to assail [ Jesus ] ? It is the same thing. When you say things that are non existent, or non true that is what is non allowed. Who has the concluding determination about let go ofing a sensitive article? Minister of Information Safwat Sharif. But President Mubarak warns us non to keep articles. First of all I tell the curate of information that such and such a magazine wrote an article about Mubarak and that from our point of position we do n t approve it. I send the article to [ Sharif ] and he gives me a determination after one or two hours.This doesn T go on frequently, possibly one time a month or every two hebdomads, non every twenty-four hours. 363

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Nazi Art Essays - German Art, Nazi Propaganda, Nazi Architecture

Nazi Art Many people know that Adolph Hitler was an artist in his youth as an Austrian, but just how much art played a role in the National Socialist Germany seems to get underrated in the history books. Just as a racial war was waged against the Jewish population and the military fought the French and the Slavic people, an artistic cleansing for the Germanic culture was in progress. Special Nazi units were searching the ancient arts of antiquity for evidence of a great Germanic race that existed well before history. Hitler had monuments and museums built on a grand scale with carefully designed architecture that would last a thousand years. Art of this nature was a priority because Hitler wanted to capture Chronos, not Gaea. He wanted to dominate the rest of time, not the limits of Earth. Hitler was born and raised in the town of Linz. As a youth he studied art, primarily as a painter capturing mostly the surrounding Alpine Mountain landscapes that he grew up with, but he also had an interest in architecture. When he turned eighteen he applied to the Vienna Art Academy, and was rejected. Along with art, Hitler was fascinated with Linz, Antiquity, and Wagner. It was at this time in his youth that Hitler and his friend, Kubicheck would try to finish an opera that Wagner had abandoned. This opera was about a leader trying to establish the Roman Empire by overthrowing the Papal government in Rome. Hitler would remember It was in that hour it all began.1 Hitler thought of Wagner and art as the basis for a new government, nation, and people. It is not just coincidence that he would be surrounded by National Socialist leaders with background in the arts. Joseph Gobbels, the Minister of Propaganda and head of the Reich Chamber of Culture, was an experienced writer and aspiring poet. Rosenberg was a painter and Von Sherot wrote poetry. Hans Frederick Munch of the Reich's Chamber of Literature said This government born out of opposition to rationalism knows the peoples inner longings and dreams, which only the artist can give them.2 Less than three months after coming to power, the Nazis issued What German artists expect of their new government in March of 1933. One of the first projects of the Nazi regime was the House of German Art (Haus der Deutschen Kunst), a large museum. Quickly the Third Reich was forming it's own style of art, as identifiable as Soviet Social- Realism, but symbolizing the national and racial policies. And while the Soviets tended to emphasize Literature, the Nazis focused on Visual art and Architecture. Nazi art was Neo- Classical with a twist of German romanticism, heroicism, and nostalgia for the times of yore.3 In the beginning there was debate on what exactly the Nazis were looking for in art. It is well known that the Third Reich was extremely hostile to Avant-Garde artists, but before the Nazis came to power, Joseph Goebbels took to the opinion that some German Expressionists were compatible with National Socialist ideas. These artists include Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Ernst Barlach, and Emil Nolde. Nolde was even a Nazi party member, but these artists could hardly be called Nazi artists. They declared nationalism and were very anti-capitalist. The Expressionists promoted sensation and passion over rational logic and were heavily into primitive German culture. Hitler, Alfred Rosenberg, and other senior Nazis attacked these modern artists as incompatible with the Nazi ideal because of there strong opposition to authoritarianism and the individualism expressed within their work.4 Albert Speer, commissioned to decorate Goebbels home would later write: I borrowed a few watercolours from ... the director of the Berlin Nationalgalerie. Goebbels and his wife were delighted with the paintings---until Hitler came to inspect, and expressed his severe disapproval. Then the minister summoned me immediately. 'The pictures will have to go at once; they're simply impossible'.5 Upon the assumption of power, almost all modern art was attacked and artists of all sorts fled the country as work was confiscated and art schools were closed. There are many reasons Hitler attacked modern art. Such groups as the Dadaists and the Bauhaus had close connections with the Soviet schools of Constructivism and Suprematism. These groups, while not necessarily Communist, were overly leftist ranging the gauntlet from Socialism to Anarchism and was extremely anti-military. Hitler also attacked the aesthetics of modern art. The Bauhaus was ultra-modern and cosmopolitan in it's designs. It's creations were seamless global industrial